There are many factors that affect the climate. Climate is affected due to:
– Low latitudes
– High latitudes
– The Water Cycle
– El Nino
The low latitudes is a zone that includes anything between 30o S and 30 N. The Tropic of Capricorn, the Equator, and the Tropic of Cancer are in that zone. The low altitude zone have warm to hot climates. This is because of the direct rays of sunlight the low latitude zone receives all year long.
However, unlike the low latitude zone, the high latitude zone receives indirect sunlight. This zone is made up of areas in between 60o N to 90o N and 60o S to 90o S. The high latitude zone is made up of the Arctic Circle and the Antarctic Circle.
The midlatitudes is an area that covers 30o N to 60o N in the Northern Hemisphere and 30o S and 60o S in the Southern Hemisphere. This is the zone that doesn’t have a consistent climate. The climate in this zone can range from really hot to really cold. It is known to be the zone with dramatic seasonal weather changes.
Elevation is important to the climate because of the relationship between the elevation of a place and its temperature. Because the Earth’s atmosphere gets thinner the higher you go up, the thinner air found in higher places retain less heat. The higher the area is, the colder it will likely be.
The Water Cycle also affects the weather. Precipitation, or rain, sleet, hail, or snow, occurs due to condensation driven by the temperature. The hot temperature causes water evaporation which then condenses in the air, and causes it to fall back down to the Earth, resulting in a cooler weather.
The final factor in climate change is El Nino. El Nino is the constant events that altar the weather pattern. El Nino is random and does not occur every year.