In 1861, many serfs moved to other cities due to their freedom being granted by Czar Alexander II’s limited reforms. They were granted their freedom without being provided for their education. in the other cities, they faced poor conditions and small wages for factory work. other non-Russians faced prejudice after the government introduced Russification, which encouraged people to speak Russian and follow Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Those who refused were harshly persecuted.
This prejudice led many Russian workers to turn to socialism-a belief that calls for greater economic equality in society. Karl Marx, a German philosopher, advocated public ownership of all land and a classless society with an equal sharing of wealth.
During the early 1900s, discontent caused many strikes and demonstrations to break out. The strikes caused Nicholas II to give up his throne, bringing czarist rule to an end. The murder of Czar Nicholas and his family brought the emrgence of communism in Russia.
Russia’s weak representative government made it easy for the Bolsheviks-revolutionary group led by Vladimar Ilyich Lenin, to seize power. They had believed in communism– philosophy based on Karl Marx’s ideas that called for the violent overthrow of government and the creation of a society led by workers.
The Bolsheviks promised “Peace, land, and bread” to withdraw Russia from World War I. In this way, they surrendered much land to Germany. Using their complete political control, they took over industry, direct food distribution, and established an 8 hour work day. soon a civil war broke out between the Bolshevik Red Army and the anti-Bolshevik White Army. The Bolsheviks won the war in 1922 and established the USSR, or Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union attained superpower status after World War II. By 1949, most of the region’s countries had become satellites-countries controlled by the Soviet Union.
The Soviet union and the United States were engaged in the Cold War-the struggle between the communist and capitalist systems for world influence and power. The “weapons” used in this war was propaganda.
World Geography and Culture. 2012. The Mcgraw hill Companies inc.
“Russia Map.” Istanbul City Guide. Published, Istanbul City Guide. 2/2/2012.